Our First-Ever Trivia Teaser

Every Monday night is trivia night here at the pub. For the first time, we're posting questions from this week's pub quiz. How many do YOU know? Leave your answers in the comments...we'll post the full set on answers on Monday to get you ready for another round that night! Happy weekend, all! 1. Who wrote the book entitled "The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn?"

2. Bonus: Yesterday (Sunday 7/10), the U.S. women's soccer team won their match against the team from which nation in the Women's World Cup. For a bonus point, in which nation is this tournament being held?

3. What continent, on average, experiences the most tornadoes annually than any other?

4. What famous actor won a Best Director Oscar for directing the 1982 film "Reds"?

5. Made by the Annabelle candy company, what is the name of the white taffy candy bar with the peanut butter center that is packaged in a black and yellow checkerboard wrapper?

6. What is the name of the NHL team that plays their home games in Carolina?

7. In "Monty Python and the Holy Grail," the Knights who say "Ni" demanded that King Arthur use a specific type of fish to cut down the mightiest tree in the forest. What type of fish?

8. The star Belegeuse gets its name from the Arabic for "the giant's shoulder" and can be found in which constellation?

9. Who is the author of the story known as the "The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde?"

10. In the first Gulf War, the U.S. put patriot missiles to the test against what 4-letter, Iraqi ballistic missiles?

11. What is the capital city of Uruguay?

12. Xylem or phloem: which is concerned with upwards water transportation through a plant, moving water and nutrients from the roots to the leaves?

13. After a 20-year hiatus, which hugely popular CBS TV series, that ran for 13 full seasons, is set to return to the airwaves this fall, this time on TNT and with 3 of its most popular original cast members?

14. Bonus: The word LASER is an acronym. What do the S and the R stand for in the acronym LASER?

15. Anagram: What specific professional job title can be made by unscrambling the phrase "Doogie is practical dirt?" Clues: 2 words, medical field.

16. Who was the scientist that is most often credited for being the first to propose the theory of a sun-centered universe?

17. Bonus: On the classic TV sitcom, "The Munsters," who played Lily and who played Merman?

18. Speaking of Lilies, the character Lily on which current TV show is going to be replaced by another actress for next season?

19. Similar to how a UPC symbol works, these types of matrix bar codes found on signs and objects allow people with smartphones to take pictures of them to download information. What is the two-letter term for these types of barcodes?

20. Anagram: The name of what city, followed by its state, can be made by unscrambling the phrase "Own creamy pig?"

21. Before adopting the Euro, what was the unit of currency of the Netherlands?

22. Which U. S. president had the most children, 15 of them?! (Legitimate)

23. With regards to cholesterol, what do the letters in the acronym LDL stand for?

24. What controversial science-fiction and self-help writer with the first name of Lafayette, dies in 1986?

25. What nation has as its only two land neighbors India and Myanmar?

26. What make and model of car was the General Lee on the classic TV show "The Dukes of Hazard"?

27. In which U.S. city will you find the Arthur Ashe Tennis Stadium?

28. Which Canadian province or territory is bordered by Alberta to its east?

29. Ireland: Ardrahan, Corleggy, Durrus and Cooleeny are all what type of Irish foodstuff?

30: Bonus: Who are the managers of the American League and National League teams in this year's All-Star Game?

Tiebreaker: In what year was the first Subway sandwich shop opened in Bridgeport, CT?

 

Don't forget to show your smarts! Leave answers in the comments!

BloomsDay is Here!

Bloomsday performers outside Davy Byrne's pub

A few facts about Bloomsday for anyone who wants to come down to the pub and raise a pint or two!

Bloomsday is a commemoration observed annually on June 16th in Dublin and elsewhere to celebrate the life of Irish writer James Joyce and relive the events in his novel Ulysses, all of which took place on the same day in Dublin in 1904. Joyce chose the date because his first outing with his wife-to-be, Nora Barnacle happened on that day, when they walked to the Dublin urban village ofRingsend. The name derives from Leopold Bloom, the protagonist of Ulysses.

Bloomsday activities

Street party in North Great George's Street, 2004

The day involves a range of cultural activities including Ulysses readings and dramatisations, pub crawls and general merriment, much of it hosted by the James Joyce Centre in North Great George's Street. Enthusiasts often dress in Edwardian costume to celebrate Bloomsday, and retrace Bloom's route around Dublin via landmarks such as Davy Byrne's pub. Hard-core devotees have even been known to hold marathon readings of the entire novel, some lasting up to 36 hours. The first celebration took place in 1954, and a major five-month-long festival (ReJoyce Dublin 2004) took place in Dublin between 1 April and 31 August 2004. On the Sunday in 2004 before the 100th "anniversary" of the fictional events described in the book, 10,000 people in Dublin were treated to a free, open-air, full Irish breakfast on O'Connell Street consisting of sausagesrasherstoastbeans, and black and white puddings.

On Bloomsday 1982, the centenary year of Joyce's birth, Irish state broadcaster, RTÉ, transmitted a continuous 30-hour dramatic performance of the entire text of Ulysses on radio.

The Rosenbach Museum & Library in Philadelphia is the home of the handwritten manuscript ofUlysses and celebrates Bloomsday with a street festival including readings, Irish music, and traditional Irish cuisine provided by local Irish-themed pubs.

The Syracuse James Joyce Club holds an annual Bloomsday celebration at Johnston's BallyBay Pub in Syracuse, New York, at which large portions of the book are either read aloud, or presented as dramatizations by costumed performers. The club awards scholarships and other prizes to students who have written essays on Joyce or fiction pertaining to his work. The city is home to Syracuse University, whose press has published or reprinted several volumes of Joyce studies.

 

Reading from Ulysses on top of James Joyce Tower and Museum, June 2009

In 2004 Vintage Publishers issued yes I said yes I will Yes: A Celebration of James Joyce, Ulysses, and 100 Years of Bloomsday, edited by Nola Tully. It is one of the few monographs that details the increasing popularity of Bloomsday. The book's title comes from the novel's famous last lines.

Bloomsday has also been celebrated since 1994 in the Hungarian town of Szombathely, the fictional birthplace of Leopold Bloom's father, Virág Rudolf, an emigrant Hungarian Jew. The event is usually centered around the Iseum, the remnants of an Isis temple from Roman times, and the Blum-mansion, commemorated to Joyce since 1997, at 40–41 Fő street, which used to be the property of an actual Jewish family called Blum. Hungarian author László Najmányi in his 2007 novel, The Mystery of the Blum-mansion (A Blum-ház rejtélye) describes the results of his research on the connection between Joyce and the Blum family.

There have been many Bloomsday events in Trieste, where the first part of Ulysses was written; a Joyce Museum was opened there on 16 June 2004. Since 2005 Bloomsday has been celebrated every year in Genoa, with a reading of Ulysses in Italian by volunteers (students, actors, teachers, scholars), starting at 9 A.M. and finishing in the early hours of 17 June; the readings take place in 18 different places in the old town centre, one for each chapter of the novel, and these places are selected for their resemblance to the original settings. Thus for example chapter 1 is read in a medieval tower, chapter 2 in a classroom of the Faculty of Languages, chapter 3 in a bookshop on the waterfront, chapter 9 in the University Library, and chapter 12 ("Cyclops") in an old pub. The Genoa Bloomsday is organized by the Faculty of Languages and the International Genoa Poetry Festival.

New York City has several events on Bloomsday including formal readings at Symphony Space and informal readings and music at the downtown Ulysses' Folk House pub.[1]

First Bloomsday Celebration

 

First bloom:John RyanAnthony Cronin,Brian O'NolanPatrick Kavanagh & Tom Joyce (James Joyce's cousin); Sandymount, 1954

Bloomsday (a term Joyce himself did not employ) was invented in 1954, on the 50th anniversary of the events in the novel, when John Ryan (artist, critic, publican and founder of Envoy magazine) and the novelist Flann O'Brienorganised what was to be a daylong pilgrimage along the Ulysses route. They were joined by Patrick Kavanagh,Anthony Cronin, Tom Joyce (a dentist who, as Joyce's cousin, represented the family interest) and AJ Leventhal (Registrar of Trinity College). Ryan had engaged two horse drawn cabs, of the old-fashioned kind, which in Ulysses Mr. Bloom and his friends drive to poor Paddy Dignam's funeral. The party were assigned roles from the novel. They planned to travel round the city through the day, visiting in turn the scenes of the novel, ending at night in what had once been the brothel quarter of the city, the area which Joyce had called Nighttown. The pilgrimage was abandoned halfway through, when the weary Lestrygonians succumbed to inebriation and rancour at the Bailey pub in the city centre, which Ryan then owned, and at which, in 1967, he installed the door to No. 7 Eccles Street (Leopold Bloom’s front door) having rescued it from demolition . A Bloomsday record of 1954, informally filmed by John Ryan, follows this pilgrimage.[2]

Popular culture references

In 1956, Ted Hughes and Sylvia Plath were married by special licence of the Archbishop of Canterbury at St George the Martyr Church, Holborn, on 16 June, in honour of Bloomsday.[3]

Jefferson Airplane's 1967 album After Bathing at Baxter's contains the track, "Rejoyce", inspired by Joyce's Ulysses.

In Mel Brooks' 1968 film The ProducersGene Wilder's character is called Leo Bloom, an homage to Joyce's character. In the musical 2005 version, in the evening scene at the Bethesda Fountain in Central Park, Leo asks, "When will it be Bloom's day?". However, in the earlier scene in which Bloom first meets Max Bialystock, the office wall calendar shows that the current day is 16 June, indicating that it is, in fact, Bloomsday.

Punk band Minutemen have a song on their 1984 Double Nickels on the Dime album entitled "June 16th".

Richard Linklater references Ulysses in two of his films. Once in 1991's Slacker, where a character reads an excerpt from Ulysses after convincing his friends to dump a tent and a typewriter in a river as a response to a prior lover's infidelity. And again in 1995's Before Sunrise, where the events take place on 16 June.

In 2009 an episode of the cartoon The Simpsons, "In the Name of the Grandfather", featured the family's trip to Dublin and Lisa's reference to Bloomsday.

Pat Conroy's 2009 novel "South of Broad" has numerous references to Bloomsday. From the publisher's blurb: "Against the sumptuous backdrop of Charleston, South Carolina, South of Broad gathers a unique cast of sinners and saints. Leopold Bloom King, our narrator, is the son of an amiable, loving father who teaches science at the local high school. His mother, an ex-nun, is the high school principal and a well-known Joyce scholar. ..." The book's first chapter describes the events of 16 June 1969 in Leo's story.

U2's 2009 song "Breathe" refers to events taking place on a fictitious 16 June.

 

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The World Of Whiskey According to Wikipedia

Whiskey

"Whisky or whiskey is a type of alcoholic beverage distilled from fermented grain mash. Different grains are used for different varieties, including barley, malted barley, rye, malted rye, wheat, and maize (corn). Whisky is aged in wooden casks, made generally of white oak, except that in the United States corn whiskey need not be aged.

Whisky is a strictly regulated spirit worldwide with many competing denominations of origin and many classes and types. The unifying characteristics of the different classes and types are the fermentation of grains, distillation to less than 95% alcohol, and aging in wood.

Etymology:

Whisky is a shortened form of usquebaugh, which English borrowed from Gaelic (Irish uisce beatha and Scottish uisge beatha). This compound descends from Old Irish uisce, "water", and bethad, "of life" and meaning literally "water of life". It meant the same thing as the Latin aqua vītae which had been applied to distilled drinks since early 14th century. Other early spellings include usquebea (1706) and iskie bae (1583). In the Irish Annals of Clonmacnoise in 1405, the first written record of whiskey appears describing the death of a chieftain at Christmas from "taking a surfeit of aqua vitae". In Scotland, the first evidence of whisky production comes from an entry in the Exchequer Rolls for 1494 where malt is sent "To Friar John Cor, by order of the king, to make aquavitae".

History:

The art of distillation began with the Babylonians in Mesopotamia (in what is now Iraq) from at least the 2nd millennium BC, with perfumes and aromatics being distilled long before potable spirits. It is possible that the art of distillation was brought from the Mediterranean regions to Ireland by Irish missionaries between the 6th century and 7th century. Distillation was brought from Africa to Europe by the Moors, and its use spread through the monasteries,  largely for medicinal purposes, such as the treatment of colic, palsy, and smallpox.

Between 1100 and 1300, distillation spread to Ireland and Scotland, with monastic distilleries existing in Ireland in the 12th century. Since Britain had few grapes with which to make wine, barley beer was used instead, resulting in the development of whisky.  In 1494, as noted above, Scotland’s Exchequer granted the malt to Friar John Cor; this was enough malt to make about 1500 bottles, so the business was apparently thriving by that time.

King James IV of Scotland (r. 1488-1513) reportedly had a great liking for Scotch whisky, and in 1506 the town of Dundee purchased a large amount of Scotch from the Guild of Surgeon Barbers, which held the monopoly on production at the time. Between 1536 and 1541, King Henry VIII of England dissolved the monasteries, sending their monks out into the general public. Whisky production moved out of a monastic setting and into personal homes and farms as newly-independent monks needed to find a way to earn money for themselves.

The distillation process at the time was still in its infancy; whisky itself was imbibed at a very young age, and as a result tasted very raw and brutal compared to today’s versions. Renaissance-era whisky was also very potent and not diluted, and could even be dangerous at times. Over time, and with the happy accident of someone daring to drink from a cask which had been forgotten for several years, whisky evolved into a much smoother drink. In 1707, the Acts of Union merged England and Scotland, and thereafter taxes on it rose dramatically.[8]

After the English Malt Tax of 1725, most of Scotland’s distillation was either shut down or forced underground. Scotch whisky was hidden under altars, in coffins, and in any available space to avoid the governmental Excisemen.  Scottish distillers, operating out of homemade stills, took to distilling their whisky at night, where the darkness would hide the smoke rising from the stills. For this reason, the drink was known as moonshine.  At one point, it was estimated that over half of Scotland’s whisky output was illegal.

In America, whisky was used as currency during the American Revolution. It also was a highly coveted sundry and when an additional excise tax was levied against it, the 1794 Whiskey Rebellion took place.[7]

In 1823, the UK passed the Excise Act, legalising the distillation (for a fee), and this put a practical end to the large-scale production of Scottish moonshine.[

In 1831, Aeneas Coffey invented the Coffey still, allowing for cheaper and more efficient distillation of whisky. In 1850, Andrew Usher mixed traditional whisky with that from the new Coffey still, and in doing so created the first Scottish blended whisky. This new grain whisky was scoffed at by Irish distillers, who clung to their malt whisky. Many Irish contended that the new mixture was, in fact, not whisky at all.[3]

By the 1880s, the French brandy industry was devastated by the phylloxera pest that ruined much of the grape crop; as a result, whisky became the primary liquor in many markets. Types:

Copper Pot stills at Auchentoshan Distillery in Scotland

Whisky or whisky-like products are produced in most grain-growing areas. They differ in base product, alcoholic content, and quality.

Malted barley is an ingredient of some whiskies.

  • Malt is whisky made entirely from malted barley and distilled in an onion-shaped pot still.
  • Grain is made from malted and unmalted barley along with other grains, usually in a continuous "patent" or "Coffey" still. Until recently it was only used in blends, but there are now some single grain scotches being marketed.

Malts and grains are combined in various ways

  • Vatted malt is blended from malt whiskies from different distilleries. If a whisky is labelled "pure malt" or just "malt" it is almost certain to be a vatted whisky. This is also sometimes labelled as "blended malt" whisky.
  • Single malt whisky is malt whisky from a single distillery. However, unless the whisky is described as "single-cask" it will contain whisky from many casks, and different years, so the blender can achieve a taste recognisable as typical of the distillery. In most cases, the name of a single malt will be that of the distillery (The Glenlivet, Bushmills, Yoichi), with an age statement and perhaps some indication of some special treatments such as maturation in a port wine cask.
  • Pure pot still whiskey refers to a whiskey distilled in a pot-still (like single malt) from a mash of mixed malted and unmalted barley. It is exclusive to Ireland.
  • Malted barley is an ingredient of some whiskies.

    Blended whiskies are made from a mixture of malt and grain whiskies. A whisky simply described as Scotch Whisky or Irish Whiskey is most likely to be a blend in this sense. A blend is usually from many distilleries so that the blender can produce a flavour consistent with the brand, and the brand name (e.g., Chivas Regal, Canadian Club) will usually not therefore contain the name of a distillery. Jameson Irish Whiskey is an exception and comes from only one distillery. However, "blend" can (less frequently) have other meanings. A mixture of malts (with no grain) from different distilleries (more usually called a vatted malt) may sometimes be referred to as a "blended malt", and a mixture of grain whiskies with no malts will sometimes carry the designation "blended grain".

  • Cask strength whiskies are rare and usually only the very best whiskies are bottled in this way. They are usually bottled from the cask undiluted. Rather than diluting, the distiller is inviting the drinker to dilute to the level of potency most palatable (often no dilution is necessary, such is the quality of single cask whiskies). Single cask whiskies are usually bottled by specialist independent bottlers, such as Duncan Taylor, Master of Malt, Gordon & MacPhail and Cadenhead amongst others.

Whiskies do not mature in the bottle, only in the cask, so the "age" of a whisky is the time between distillation and bottling. This reflects how much the cask has interacted with the whisky, changing its chemical makeup and taste. Whiskies which have been in bottle for many years may have a rarity value, but are not "older" and will not necessarily be "better" than a more recently made whisky matured in wood for a similar time. Most whiskies are sold at or near an alcoholic strength of 40% abv.

American whiskeys:

American whiskey is distilled from a fermented mash of cereal grain. It must have the taste, aroma, and other characteristics commonly attributed to whiskey.

The types listed in the federal regulations are:

  • Bourbon whiskey, which is made from mash that consists of at least 51% corn (maize).
  • Rye whiskey, which is made from mash that consists of at least 51% rye.
  • Wheat whiskey, which is made from mash that consists of at least 51% wheat.
  • Malt whiskey, which is made from mash that consists of at least 51% malted barley.
  • Rye malt whiskey, which is made from mash that consists of at least 51% malted rye.
  • Corn whiskey, which is made from mash that consists of at least 80% corn (maize).

These "named types" of American whiskey must be distilled to not more than 80 percent alcohol by volume. They must then be aged in charred new oak containers, except for corn whiskey. Corn whiskey does not have to be aged but, if it is aged, it must be in new un-charred oak barrels or used barrels. The ageing for corn whiskey usually is brief, e.g., six months.

If the aging for a "named type" reaches 2 years or beyond, the whiskey is then additionally designated "straight" e.g., "straight rye whiskey". "Straight whiskey" (without naming a grain) is a whiskey which has been aged in charred new oak containers for 2 years or more and distilled at not more than 80 percent alcohol by volume but is derived from less than 51% of any one grain.

American blended whiskeys combine straight whiskey with grain neutral spirits (GNS), flavourings and colourings. The percentage of GNS must be disclosed on the label and may be as much at 80% on a proof gallon basis. Blended whiskey has the same alcohol content as straight whiskey but a much milder flavour.

Important in the marketplace is Tennessee whiskey, of which Jack Daniel's is the leading example. During production it is identical to bourbon whiskey in almost every important respect including the sour mash process. The only differences is that Tennessee whiskey is filtered through sugar maple charcoal, which is claimed to remove some unpleasant flavours and odours and produce a cleaner spirit. Though not defined by Federal regulations, the Government of the United States officially recognized Tennessee whiskey as a separate style distinct from bourbon in 1941.

Templeton Rye Whisky(Templeton, Iowa)

The United States was recovering from World War I, and many farmers needed additional income to support their families and farm payments. In response to this need for revenue, a group of farmers in a small town of Templeton, Iowa began to brew and distil their own form of rye whiskey, which they named Templeton Rye. Word of the single barrel malt Templeton Rye quickly spread and eventually caught the attention of the Capone gang, who began bootlegging hundreds of kegs of Templeton Rye per month and distributing it to speakeasies throughout New York, Chicago and as far west as Denver. Legend has it that Capone even orchestrated getting Templeton Rye smuggled to him while incarcerated in Alcatraz.

Australian whiskeys:

Australia produces a number of single malt whiskies. The whiskies being produced on the island State of Tasmania in particular are receiving global attention.

Australian whiskies are winning an increasing number of global whisky awards and medals, including for example the World Whiskies Awards and Jim Murray's Whisky Bible 'Liquid Gold Awards'.

Australian distilleries include: Bakery Hill, Hellyers Road, Lark, Limeburners, Nant, Small Concern (no longer operating), Smith's (no longer operating) and Sullivan's Cove.

Canadian whiskeys:

 

Canadian whiskies are usually lighter and smoother than other whisky styles. Another common characteristic of many Canadian whiskies is their use of rye that has been malted, which provides a fuller flavour and smoothness. By Canadian law,[11] Canadian whiskies must be produced in Canada, be distilled from a fermented mash of cereal grain, "be aged in small wood for not less than 3 years", and "possess the aroma, taste and character generally attributed to Canadian whisky". The terms "Canadian Whisky", "Canadian Rye Whisky" and "Rye Whisky" are legally indistinguishable in Canada and do not denote any particular proportion of rye or other grain used in production.

Finnish whiskeys:

There are two working distilleries in Finland and a third one is under construction. Whisky retail sales in Finland are controlled solely by the state alcohol monopoly Alko and advertisement of strong alcoholic beverages is banned.

German whiskeys:

The distillation of German-made whisky is a relatively recent phenomenon having only started in the last 30 years. The styles produced resemble those made in Ireland, Scotland and the United States: single malts, blends, and bourbon styles. There is no standard spelling of German whiskies with distilleries using both "whisky" and "whiskey" and one even using "whessky", a play on the word whisky and Hessen, the state in which it is produced. There are currently ten distilleries in Germany producing whisky.

Indian whiskeys:

Indian whisky is an alcoholic beverage that is labelled as "whisky" in India. Much Indian whisky is distilled from fermented molasses, and as such would be considered a sort of rum outside of the Indian subcontinent. 90% of the "whisky" consumed in India is molasses based, although India has begun to distill whisky from malt and other grains.[15]

Kasauli Distillery is set in the Himalaya mountains and opened in the late 1820s. The main whisky brand is a single malt named "Solan No. 1". This was named after the town nearby called Solan. It was the best selling Indian whisky till recently, but has declined since the early 1980s because of the stiff competition from the larger distilleries. Other whiskies this distillery produces are Diplomat Deluxe, Colonel's Special, Black Knight and Summer Hall.

Irish whiskeys:

Most Irish whiskeys are distilled three times. Though traditionally distilled using pot stills, column still are now used to produce grain whiskey for blends. By law, Irish whiskey must be produced in Ireland and aged in wooden casks for a period of no less than three years, although in practice it is usually three or four times that period.[18] Unpeated malt is almost always used, the main exception being Connemara Peated Malt whiskey.

There are several types of whiskey common to Ireland: single malt, single grain, blended whiskey and uniquely to Ireland, pure pot still whiskey. The designation "pure pot still" as used in Ireland generally refers to whiskey made of 100% barley, mixed malted and unmalted, and distilled in a pot still made of copper. The "green" unmalted barley gives the traditional pure pot still whiskey a spicy, uniquely Irish quality. Like single malt, pure pot still is sold as such or blended with grain whiskey. Usually no real distinction is made between whether a blended whiskey was made from single malt or pure pot still.

Japanese Whiskeys:

The model for Japanese whiskeys is the single malt Scotch, although there are also examples of Japanese blended whiskies. The base is a mash of malted barley, dried in kilns fired with a little peat (although considerably less than in Scotland), and distilled using the pot still method. For some time exports of Japanese whisky suffered from the belief in the West that whisky made in the Scotch style, but not produced in Scotland, was inferior, and until fairly recently, the market for Japanese whiskies was almost entirely domestic. In recent years, Japanese whiskies have won prestigious international awards and now enjoy a reputation as a quality product.

Scotch whiskeys:

Scotch whiskeys are generally distilled twice, though some are distilled a third time. International laws require anything bearing the label "Scotch" to be distilled in Scotland and matured for a minimum of three years and one day in oak casks, among other, more specific criteria. If Scotch whisky is from more than one cask, and if it includes an age statement on the bottle, it must reflect the age of the youngest whisky in the blend. Many cask-strength single malts omit the age as they use younger elements in minute amounts for flavouring and mellowing. The basic types of Scotch are malt and grain, which are combined to create blends. Many, though not all, Scotch whiskies use peat smoke to treat their malt, giving Scotch its distinctive smoky flavour. While the market is dominated by blends, the most highly prized of Scotch whiskies are the single malts. Scotch whiskies are divided into five main regions: Highland, Lowland, Islay, Speyside and Campbeltown.

Welsh Whiskeys:

In 2000, Penderyn Distillery started production of the Penderyn single malt Welsh whisky in Wales, the first Welsh whisky since all production ended in 1894. The first bottles went on sale on 1 March 2004, Saint David's Day, and the whisky is now sold throughout the world. Penderyn Distillery is situated in the Brecon Beacons National Park and is considered the smallest distillery in the world.

Other Whiskeys:

In Brittany, France, five distilleries (Distillerie des Menhirs,[24] Guillon,[25] Glann ar Mor,[26] Kaerilis[27] and Warenghem[28]) produce whisky using techniques similar to those in Scotland.

One whisky is produced on the French island of Corsica: Pietra & Mavella (P&M) is a coproduction of the brewery Pietra and the distillery Mavella. The mash is enriched with chestnut flour. P&M is matured in muscat casks (Domaine Gentile).[29][not in citation given]

Manx Spirit from the Isle of Man is, like some Virginia whiskeys in the USA, distilled elsewhere and re-distilled in the country of its nominal "origin".

In Spain there is a distillery named DYC, started in 1948.

In Sweden a new distillery (Mackmyra), started selling its products in 2006.

Recently at least two distilleries in the traditionally brandy-producing Caucasus region announced their plans to enter the Russian domestic market with whiskies. The Stavropol-based Praskoveysky distillery bases its product on Irish technology, while in Kizlyar, Dagestan's "Russian Whisky" announced a Scotch-inspired drink in single malt, blended and wheat varieties.

In Taiwan, the King Car company built a whisky distillery in the city of Yilan, and has recently begun marketing Kavalan Single Malt Whisky.

Production of whisky started in Norfolk, England in late 2006 and the first whisky (as opposed to malt spirit) was made available to the public in November 2009. This is the first English single malt in over 100 years. It was produced at St George's Distillery by the English Whisky Company.  Previously Bristol and Liverpool were centres of English whisky production. East Anglia is a source of much of the grain used in Scotch whisky.

Names and spellings:

The word "whisky" is believed to have been coined by soldiers of King Henry II who invaded Ireland in the 12th century as they struggled to pronounce the native Irish words uisce beatha [ɪʃkʲə bʲahə], meaning "water of life". Over time, the pronunciation changed from "whishkeyba" (an approximation of how the Irish term sounds) to "whisky". The name itself is a Gaelic calque of the Latin phrase aqua vitae, meaning "water of life".

Much is made of the word's two spellings, whisky and whiskey. Today, the spelling whisky (plural whiskies) is generally used for whiskies distilled in Scotland, Wales, Canada, and Japan, while whiskey (plural whiskeys) is used for the whiskeys distilled in Ireland and the United States. However, several prominent American brands, such as Maker's Mark and George Dickel, use the 'whisky' spelling. When writing generally about this type of spirit, either spelling is correct.

"Scotch" is the internationally recognized term for "Scotch whisky" however it is rarely used in Scotland, where the drink is called 'whisky.'

In many Latin-American countries, whisky (wee-skee) is used as a photographer's cue to smile, supplanting English "cheese". The Uruguayan film Whisky got its name because of this.

Chemistry:

Whiskeys and other distilled beverages such as cognac and rum are complex beverages containing a vast range of flavouring compounds, of which some 200 to 300 can be easily detected by chemical analysis. The flavoring chemicals include "carbonyl compounds, alcohols, carboxylic acids and their esters, nitrogen- and sulfur-containing compounds, tannins and other polyphenolic compounds, terpenes, and oxygen-containing heterocyclic compounds" and esters of fatty acids.  The nitrogen compounds include pyridines, picolines and pyrazines.

Flavours from distillation:

The flavoring of whisky is partially determined by the presence of congeners and fusel oils. Fusel oils are higher alcohols than ethanol, are mildly toxic, and have a strong, disagreeable smell and taste. An excess of fusel oils in whisky is considered a defect. A variety of methods are employed in the distillation process to remove unwanted fusel oils. Traditionally, American distillers focused on secondary filtration using charcoal, gravel, sand, or linen to remove undesired distillates. Canadian distillers have traditionally employed column stills which can be controlled to produce an almost pure (and less flavorful) ethanol known as neutral grain spirit or grain neutral spirit (GNS).  Flavor is restored by blending the neutral grain spirits with flavoring whiskies.

Acetals are rapidly formed in distillates and a great many are found in distilled beverages, the most prominent being acetaldehyde diethyl acetal (1,1-diethoxyethane). Among whiskies the highest levels are associated with malt whisky. This acetal is a principal flavour compound in sherry, and contributes fruitiness to the aroma.

The diketone diacetyl (2,3-Butanedione) has a buttery aroma and is present in almost all distilled beverages. Whiskies and cognacs typically contain more than vodkas, but significantly less than rums or brandies.[42]

Flavours from oak:

Whisky lactone (3-methyl-4-octanolide) is found in all types of oak. This lactone has a strong coconut aroma.  Whisky lactone is also known as quercus lactone.  Commercially charred oaks are rich in phenolic compounds. One study identified 40 different phenolic compounds. The coumarin scopoletin is present in whisky, with the highest level reported in Bourbon whiskey.

Bourbon

Bourbon is an American whiskey, a type of distilled spirit, made primarily from corn and named for Bourbon County, Kentucky. It has been produced since the 18th century. While it may be made anywhere in the United States, it is strongly associated with the Commonwealth of Kentucky.

On 4 May 1964, the United States Congress recognized Bourbon Whiskey as a "distinctive product of the United States." The Federal Standards of Identity for Distilled Spirits (27 C.F.R. 5.22) state that bourbon must meet these requirements:

  • Bourbon must be made of a grain mixture that is at least 51% corn.
  • Bourbon must be distilled to no more than 160 (U.S.) proof (80% alcohol by volume).
  • Neither coloring nor flavoring may be added.
  • Bourbon must be aged in new, charred oak barrels.
  • Bourbon must be entered into the barrel at no more than 125 proof (62.5% alcohol by volume).
  • Bourbon, like other whiskeys, may not be bottled at less than 80 proof (40% alcohol by volume.)
  • Bourbon which meets the above requirements and has been aged for a minimum of two years, may (but is not required to) be called Straight Bourbon.
  • Straight Bourbon aged for a period less than four years must be labeled with the duration of its aging.
  • If an age is stated on the label, it must be the age of the youngest whiskey in the bottle.

In practice, almost all bourbons marketed today are made from more than two-thirds corn, have been aged at least four years, and do qualify as "straight bourbon"—with or without the "straight bourbon" label. The exceptions are inexpensive commodity brands of bourbon aged only three years and pre-mixed cocktails made with straight bourbon aged the minimum two years. However, a few small distilleries market bourbons aged for as little as three months.

Production process:

The typical grain mixture for bourbon, known as the mash bill, is 70% corn with the remainder being wheat and/or rye, and malted barley. The grain is ground, dissolved in water, and usually, though not always, mash from a previous distillation is added to ensure a consistent pH across batches. Finally, yeast is added and the mash is fermented. The fermented mash is then distilled to (typically) between 65% and 80% alcohol.

This clear spirit is placed in charred oak barrels for aging, during which it gains color and flavor from the wood. Changes to the spirit also occur due to evaporation and chemical processes such as oxidation. Bourbons gain more color and flavor the longer they age. Maturity, not a particular age, is the goal. Bourbon can age too long and become woody and unbalanced.

After aging, bourbon is withdrawn from the barrel, usually diluted with water and bottled to at least 80 US proof (40% abv). Most bourbon whiskey is sold at 80 US proof. Other common proofs are 86, 90, 94, 100 and 107, and whiskeys of up to 151 proof have been sold. Some higher proof bottlings are "barrel proof," meaning that they have not been diluted after removal from the barrels.

Bourbon whiskey may be sold at less than 80 proof but must be labeled as "diluted bourbon."

Geographic origin:

Bourbon may be produced anywhere in the United States where it is legal to distill spirits. Currently most brands are produced in Kentucky, where bourbon has a strong association. Estimates are that 95% of the world's bourbon is distilled and aged in Kentucky. Bourbon has also been made in Colorado, Kansas, Illinois, Indiana, Missouri, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, and Virginia.

Bardstown, Kentucky, is called the Bourbon Capital of the World and is home to the annual Bourbon Festival in September.

The Kentucky Bourbon Trail is the name of a tourism promotion intended to attract visitors to eight well-known distilleries: Buffalo Trace (Frankfort), Four Roses (Lawrenceburg), Heaven Hill (Bardstown), Jim Beam (Clermont), Maker's Mark (Loretto), Tom Moore (Bardstown, added to the trail on August 27, 2008), Wild Turkey (Lawrenceburg), and Woodford Reserve (Versailles).

History:

Oak casks, shown stacked in ricks, used to store and age bourbon. Bourbon, or rather whiskey in general, that escapes naturally from the wooden casks, as seen by the stains along the sides of the barrels, is known to distillers as the "angel's share".

The origin of bourbon is not well documented. Instead, there are many conflicting legends and claims, some more credible than others. For example, the invention of bourbon is often attributed to a pioneering Baptist minister and distiller named Elijah Craig. Rev. Craig (credited with many Kentucky firsts, e.g., fulling mill, paper mill, ropewalk, etc.) is said to also be the first to age the distillation in charred oak casks, "a process that gives the bourbon its reddish color and unique taste."[7] Across the county line in Bourbon County, an early distiller named Jacob Spears is credited with being the first to label his product "Bourbon whiskey." Spears' home, Stone Castle, warehouse and spring house survive; one can drive by the Spears home on Clay-Kaiser Road.

It should be noted that Berkley Plantation in Virginia lays claim to the first bourbon whiskey produced in 1621, by George Thorpe, an Episcopal priest, although they did not call it "bourbon" at the time.

Although still popular and often repeated, the Craig legend has little actual credibility. Similarly, the Spears story is a local favorite, rarely repeated outside the county. There likely was no single "inventor" of bourbon, which developed into its present form only in the late 19th century.[8]

Distilling probably arrived in what would later become known as Kentucky when Scottish, Scots-Irish, and other settlers (including, English, Irish, German, and French) began to farm the area in earnest in the late 18th century. The spirit they made evolved and gained a name in the early 19th century.

When American pioneers pushed west of the Allegheny Mountains following the American Revolution, the first counties they founded covered vast regions. One of these original, huge counties was Bourbon, established in 1785 and named after the French royal family. While this vast county was being carved into many smaller ones, early in the 19th century, many people continued to call the region Old Bourbon. Located within Old Bourbon was the principal Ohio River port from which whiskey and other products were shipped. "Old Bourbon" was stencilled on the barrels to indicate their port of origin. Old Bourbon whiskey was different because it was the first corn whiskey most people had ever tasted. In time, bourbon became the name for any corn-based whiskey.[9]

A refinement variously credited to either James C. Crow or Jason S. Amburgey[10] was the sour mash process, by which each new fermentation is conditioned with some amount of spent mash (previously fermented mash that has been separated from its alcohol). Spent mash is also known as spent beer, distillers' spent grain, stillage, and slop or feed mash, so named because it is used as animal feed. The acid introduced by using the sour mash controls the growth of bacteria that could taint the whiskey and creates a proper pH balance for the yeast to work.

As of 2005[update], all straight bourbons use a sour mash process. Crow or Amburgey developed this refinement while working at the Old Oscar Pepper Distillery (now the Woodford Reserve Distillery) in Woodford County, Kentucky. As of today, there are no running distilleries within the current boundaries of Bourbon County due to new counties being formed from Bourbon County over time.

A resolution of the U.S. Congress in 1964 declared bourbon to be a "distinctive product of the United States." That resolution asked "the appropriate agencies of the United States Government... [to] take appropriate action to prohibit importation into the United States of whiskey designated as 'Bourbon Whiskey.'"Federal regulation now defines "bourbon whiskey" to only include "bourbon" produced in the United States.

National Bourbon Heritage Month:

On August 2, 2007, the U.S. Senate passed a resolution sponsored by Senator Jim Bunning (R-KY) officially declaring September 2007 "National Bourbon Heritage Month," marking the history of bourbon whiskey.  Notably, the resolution claims that Congress declared bourbon to be "America's Native Spirit" in its 1964 resolution.  The 1964 resolution, however, does not contain such a statement per se; it only declares that bourbon is a distinctive product identifiable with the United States in the same way that Scotch is identifiable with Scotland.  The resolution has been passed each year since.

Present day:

Since 2003, high-end bourbons have seen revenue grow from $450 million to over $500 million (£231 million to over £257 million or €308 million to over €343 million), some 2.2 million cases, in the United States. High-end bourbon sales accounted for eight percent of total spirits growth in 2006. Most high-end bourbons are aged for six years or longer.[15]

In 2007, United States spirits exports, virtually all of which are American whiskey, exceeded $1 billion for the first time. This represents a 15 percent increase over 2006. American whiskey is now sold in more than 100 countries. The leading markets are the United Kingdom, Canada, Germany, Australia, and Japan. Key emerging markets for American whiskey are China, Vietnam, Brazil, Chile, Romania, and Bulgaria."

Whiskey according to Wikipedia

Disclaimer:

This article is posted here from Wikipedia so readers of our blog can see a brief overview of whiskey without having to leave our blog.   All credit from this post goes to Wikipedia.  We just like to collect facts and tasting notes from all over the web to share with our Whiskey Society and our guests that love whiskey.  Happy reading and drinking!

You can try the Whiskeys mentioned here at  de Vere’s Irish Pub in downtown Sacramento.

Join our Whiskey Society to learn more about Whiskey’s at a discount!

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Irish pub to replace Soga's

"Brothers Simon and Henry de Vere White are co-owners of the popular de Vere's Irish Pub in Sacramento and will be branching out to Davis by September 2011. The de Vere Whites hail from Ireland and plan to bring an Irish flair to the Downtown Davis dining experience.

"We're an Irish pub, we cater to a wide variety of people, from families with kids to the business community," said Simon. "We're very food focused here, so I think what helps us be successful is being family owned and operated."

De Vere's Irish Pub signed a 10-year lease at 217 E St., a 4,800 square foot location formerly occupied by Soga's. The new location is 1,000 square feet larger than the Sacramento location.

De Vere's will take over the building formerly occupied by Soga's, an Italian and American food restaurant that permanently closed on Nov. 21 2010, after filing for bankruptcy.

"We liked the look of the building, we wanted to be downtown," said Simon. "We thought that downtown Davis had a great feel to it, and it seems that that's where the focus of the food industry is."

De Vere's will provide a hearty menu filled with traditional Irish food, as well as the familiar cheeseburger and sandwich for the more timid restaurant-goers.

Most of the food served will be made fresh in-house, including curing their own bacon, butchering their own meat and making their own pudding.

"We like to say we make everything here, except for Ranch," said Simon.

Despite Soga's recent bankruptcy, the de Vere Whites were not discouraged from branching out into Davis with a second pub after two successful years in Sacramento.

"We were always very intrigued with Davis. Great community and culture there. Family-oriented town, family business," said Simon. "We thought that going into a place that has a university system was very compelling and thought we would be a good fit for Davis."

For those looking for an authentic Irish pub experience, de Vere's is the place to go. De Vere's Irish Pub provides both authentic Irish cuisine and authentic Irish interior design complete with family pictures, paintings and Irish antiques.

"In Ireland, kids are at the pubs. You're born in the pub, grow up in the pub, get married in the pub," said Simon. "Every Sunday is family Sunday, we discount the kids menu. We definitely try to attract the family aspect."

De Vere's, winner of Sacramento Magazine's Best Pub Food award of 2010, prides itself on its hospitality, food and cozy atmosphere.

The opening of de Vere's is good news for the alcohol savvy as well, offering an extensive alcohol menu with 89 varieties of whiskey and 66 varieties of scotch."

 

DYLAN AARON can be reached at city@theaggie.org.

 

The History of Bourbon

"Bourbon is an American whiskey, a type of distilled spirit, made primarily from corn and named for Bourbon County, Kentucky. It has been produced since the 18th century. While it may be made anywhere in the United States, it is strongly associated with the Commonwealth of Kentucky.

On 4 May 1964, the United States Congress recognized Bourbon Whiskey as a "distinctive product of the United States." The Federal Standards of Identity for Distilled Spirits (27 C.F.R. 5.22) state that bourbon must meet these requirements:

  • Bourbon must be made of a grain mixture that is at least 51% corn.
  • Bourbon must be distilled to no more than 160 (U.S.) proof (80% alcohol by volume).
  • Neither coloring nor flavoring may be added.
  • Bourbon must be aged in new, charred oak barrels.
  • Bourbon must be entered into the barrel at no more than 125 proof (62.5% alcohol by volume).
  • Bourbon, like other whiskeys, may not be bottled at less than 80 proof (40% alcohol by volume.)
  • Bourbon which meets the above requirements and has been aged for a minimum of two years, may (but is not required to) be called Straight Bourbon.
  • Straight Bourbon aged for a period less than four years must be labeled with the duration of its aging.
  • If an age is stated on the label, it must be the age of the youngest whiskey in the bottle.

In practice, almost all bourbons marketed today are made from more than two-thirds corn, have been aged at least four years, and do qualify as "straight bourbon"—with or without the "straight bourbon" label. The exceptions are inexpensive commodity brands of bourbon aged only three years and pre-mixed cocktails made with straight bourbon aged the minimum two years. However, a few small distilleries market bourbons aged for as little as three months.

Production process:

The typical grain mixture for bourbon, known as the mash bill, is 70% corn with the remainder being wheat and/or rye, and malted barley. The grain is ground, dissolved in water, and usually, though not always, mash from a previous distillation is added to ensure a consistent pH across batches. Finally, yeast is added and the mash is fermented. The fermented mash is then distilled to (typically) between 65% and 80% alcohol.

This clear spirit is placed in charred oak barrels for aging, during which it gains color and flavor from the wood. Changes to the spirit also occur due to evaporation and chemical processes such as oxidation. Bourbons gain more color and flavor the longer they age. Maturity, not a particular age, is the goal. Bourbon can age too long and become woody and unbalanced.

After aging, bourbon is withdrawn from the barrel, usually diluted with water and bottled to at least 80 US proof (40% abv). Most bourbon whiskey is sold at 80 US proof. Other common proofs are 86, 90, 94, 100 and 107, and whiskeys of up to 151 proof have been sold. Some higher proof bottlings are "barrel proof," meaning that they have not been diluted after removal from the barrels.

Bourbon whiskey may be sold at less than 80 proof but must be labeled as "diluted bourbon."

Geographic origin:

Bourbon may be produced anywhere in the United States where it is legal to distill spirits. Currently most brands are produced in Kentucky, where bourbon has a strong association. Estimates are that 95% of the world's bourbon is distilled and aged in Kentucky. Bourbon has also been made in Colorado, Kansas, Illinois, Indiana, Missouri, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, and Virginia.

Bardstown, Kentucky, is called the Bourbon Capital of the World and is home to the annual Bourbon Festival in September.

The Kentucky Bourbon Trail is the name of a tourism promotion intended to attract visitors to eight well-known distilleries: Buffalo Trace (Frankfort), Four Roses (Lawrenceburg), Heaven Hill (Bardstown), Jim Beam (Clermont), Maker's Mark (Loretto), Tom Moore (Bardstown, added to the trail on August 27, 2008), Wild Turkey (Lawrenceburg), and Woodford Reserve (Versailles).

History:

Oak casks, shown stacked in ricks, used to store and age bourbon. Bourbon, or rather whiskey in general, that escapes naturally from the wooden casks, as seen by the stains along the sides of the barrels, is known to distillers as the "angel's share".

The origin of bourbon is not well documented. Instead, there are many conflicting legends and claims, some more credible than others. For example, the invention of bourbon is often attributed to a pioneering Baptist minister and distiller named Elijah Craig. Rev. Craig (credited with many Kentucky firsts, e.g., fulling mill, paper mill, ropewalk, etc.) is said to also be the first to age the distillation in charred oak casks, "a process that gives the bourbon its reddish color and unique taste."[7] Across the county line in Bourbon County, an early distiller named Jacob Spears is credited with being the first to label his product "Bourbon whiskey." Spears' home, Stone Castle, warehouse and spring house survive; one can drive by the Spears home on Clay-Kaiser Road.

It should be noted that Berkley Plantation in Virginia lays claim to the first bourbon whiskey produced in 1621, by George Thorpe, an Episcopal priest, although they did not call it "bourbon" at the time.

Although still popular and often repeated, the Craig legend has little actual credibility. Similarly, the Spears story is a local favorite, rarely repeated outside the county. There likely was no single "inventor" of bourbon, which developed into its present form only in the late 19th century.[8]

Distilling probably arrived in what would later become known as Kentucky when Scottish, Scots-Irish, and other settlers (including, English, Irish, German, and French) began to farm the area in earnest in the late 18th century. The spirit they made evolved and gained a name in the early 19th century.

When American pioneers pushed west of the Allegheny Mountains following the American Revolution, the first counties they founded covered vast regions. One of these original, huge counties was Bourbon, established in 1785 and named after the French royal family. While this vast county was being carved into many smaller ones, early in the 19th century, many people continued to call the region Old Bourbon. Located within Old Bourbon was the principal Ohio River port from which whiskey and other products were shipped. "Old Bourbon" was stencilled on the barrels to indicate their port of origin. Old Bourbon whiskey was different because it was the first corn whiskey most people had ever tasted. In time, bourbon became the name for any corn-based whiskey.[9]

A refinement variously credited to either James C. Crow or Jason S. Amburgey[10] was the sour mash process, by which each new fermentation is conditioned with some amount of spent mash (previously fermented mash that has been separated from its alcohol). Spent mash is also known as spent beer, distillers' spent grain, stillage, and slop or feed mash, so named because it is used as animal feed. The acid introduced by using the sour mash controls the growth of bacteria that could taint the whiskey and creates a proper pH balance for the yeast to work.

As of 2005[update], all straight bourbons use a sour mash process. Crow or Amburgey developed this refinement while working at the Old Oscar Pepper Distillery (now the Woodford Reserve Distillery) in Woodford County, Kentucky. As of today, there are no running distilleries within the current boundaries of Bourbon County due to new counties being formed from Bourbon County over time.

A resolution of the U.S. Congress in 1964 declared bourbon to be a "distinctive product of the United States." That resolution asked "the appropriate agencies of the United States Government... [to] take appropriate action to prohibit importation into the United States of whiskey designated as 'Bourbon Whiskey.'"Federal regulation now defines "bourbon whiskey" to only include "bourbon" produced in the United States.

National Bourbon Heritage Month:

On August 2, 2007, the U.S. Senate passed a resolution sponsored by Senator Jim Bunning (R-KY) officially declaring September 2007 "National Bourbon Heritage Month," marking the history of bourbon whiskey.  Notably, the resolution claims that Congress declared bourbon to be "America's Native Spirit" in its 1964 resolution.  The 1964 resolution, however, does not contain such a statement per se; it only declares that bourbon is a distinctive product identifiable with the United States in the same way that Scotch is identifiable with Scotland.  The resolution has been passed each year since.

Present day:

Since 2003, high-end bourbons have seen revenue grow from $450 million to over $500 million (£231 million to over £257 million or €308 million to over €343 million), some 2.2 million cases, in the United States. High-end bourbon sales accounted for eight percent of total spirits growth in 2006. Most high-end bourbons are aged for six years or longer.[15]

In 2007, United States spirits exports, virtually all of which are American whiskey, exceeded $1 billion for the first time. This represents a 15 percent increase over 2006. American whiskey is now sold in more than 100 countries. The leading markets are the United Kingdom, Canada, Germany, Australia, and Japan. Key emerging markets for American whiskey are China, Vietnam, Brazil, Chile, Romania, and Bulgaria.

You can try a lot of the  Whiskey's in this post  at  de Vere's Pub in downtown Sacramento.

GET MORE PUB UPDATES HERE:

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de Vere's To Open in Davis

"The owners of de Vere's Irish Pub have announced that a Davis location for their popular watering hole will open in September.

A lease was signed in March for a 4,800 square foot space at 217 E St. in downtown Davis, a space formerly occupied by Soga's restaurant. Like its downtown Sacramento location, the Davis branch of de Vere's will focus on Irish-themed drinks and decor, and a menu that includes house-made bacon, blood sausages and other pub fare. The Davis location will be about 1,000 square feet larger than its Sacramento pub, and includes a wraparound patio.

Co-owner Henry de Vere White, who once ran a college pub in Seattle, feels confident that Davis is a good fit for his Irish pub.

"We love the food movement out there and just relate well to the area," said de Vere White. "We're going to cater to the Davis community as a whole, from the professors and college students to those with families and kid-friendly brunches. We want locals to come in and have a pint and have a nice change of pace."

de Vere signed a 10-year lease for the space with two five year options. The pub will be neighbors with a variety of other watering holes and restaurants, including Cafe Bernardo and Burgers and Brew, and officials with the City of Davis' Economic Development Department are encouraged with the news about de Vere's coming to town.

"Davis prides itself in its range of dining and beverage establishments," said Katherine Hess, Community Development Department Administrator. "We've heard a lot of comments that people would like to see something that's not Thai food and pizza, so this is encouraging. We want a wide variety of restaurants for visitors and residents alike."

Remodeling the space is underway and the de Vere family plans to travel to Ireland to pick up decorative items for the pub. de Vere's has hired architects both in Ireland and locally to complete the project.

"Pub life is more than just having a bar," said de Vere White. "We want the college students to come back on a road trip later in life and remember de Vere's as a place where they formed friendships.""

Article by: Chris Macias Read more: http://blogs.sacbee.com/dining/archives/2011/04/de-veres-irish.html#ixzz1IfQKkX5O

 

De Vere's expanding to Davis

"De Vere’s Irish Pub, a locally owned downtown business founded in the midst of the recession, will open its second location at the end of the summer in the space that was formerly the home of Soga’s in Davis.

“We’re excited,” said co-owner Simon de Vere White. “We’ve been eying Davis for a long time.”

The new space, at 217 E St. in downtown Davis, is 4,800 square feet, about 1,000 square feet bigger than the Sacramento pub.

His brother, co-owner Henry de Vere White, said the expansion is a risk, but one he hopes will prove as successful as the current location on 15th and L streets in Sacramento.

“I think we filled a niche here in Sacramento," Simon de Vere White said, adding that the brothers hope to do the same in Davis.

The basic concept will be the same, as they said community involvement at all levels is important to success.

“We are a neighborhood Irish pub,” Henry de Vere White said. “We do lunch and dinner, and you see the little ones coming in, and then at night it gets a little bit (of an older crowd).”

According to Christi Skibbins, executive director of the Davis Chamber of Commerce, E Street is often referred to as “Eat Street.”

“E Street is a street a lot of people call Eat Street because there are so many restaurants and bars,” she said. “It will be a good spot for them. They’re right across from E Street Plaza, so there is plenty of parking, and it has easy access from all of Davis.”

The Davis pub will have the same menu as de Vere’s in Sacramento when it comes to drinks and food, but possibly with more emphasis on hamburgers with the large student population, Simon de Vere White said.

“It’s too early to tell, but that’s something we will work out when we get closer to opening,” he added.

Activities like the popular Monday night trivia challenge will be carried over to the Davis location as well.

The décor will be similar, as family friends in Ireland will once again be designing the interior space.

“This whole pub was built in Ireland then broken down and shipped over here,” Henry de Vere White said Monday in the Sacramento pub. “All the decorations on the walls are replicas of family items from Ireland.”

Authenticity is important to the brothers, with Simon being born in Ireland and Henry being born in Boston – the first one born in America from a family that traces its Irish heritage back to the year 1140.

The brothers have been living in Sacramento since 1985.

“In here, we have high ceilings, but in Davis, the ceilings are much lower,” Henry de Vere White said. “This is typical of a Victorian pub in downtown Dublin, but the Davis one will have more of a neighborhood feel.”

Philippe Masoud is the owner of two restaurants with locations in both Sacramento and Davis – Crepeville and Burgers and Brew. He said he expects the pub to be successful as well, since the same types of places appeal to both cities.

“Davis is a really good town for us. Sacramento took us longer to be discovered,” he said, adding that he opened his businesses in Davis first.

One challenge to doing business in Davis that Sacramento doesn’t face, however, is that business slows down considerably in summer, when the college students are on break, he said.

But that can be overcome, he said, adding, “I think they will do really good.”

For more information on de Vere’s Irish Pub in Davis, check the pub’sFacebook page or follow it on Twitter."

Brandon Darnell is a staff reporter for The Sacramento Press.

 

Oyster shuckers gather to compete and crown their champion In Ireland

Galway International Oyster Festival in Ireland attracts an international cast with sharp knives and a sense of fun.

Heini Petersen of Norway displays his oyster shucking knives.
Heini Petersen of Norway displays his oyster shucking knives. (Necee Regis / For The Times)

Out on the flats of Galway Bay, late September's ashen clouds hang low over the gunmetal sea. Faded gray seaweed cushions the muddy, rock-strewn shore where the wind is brisk and scented with salt.

Standing in an inch of muck, a bunch of oyster shuckers are talking about knives. Not just any old knives or any old shuckers. The knife-wielding guys assembled this afternoon are the crème de la crème of competitors in the oyster-shucking universe. They're here for the Guinness World Oyster Opening Championship, the centerpiece of the three-day party, now in its 55th year, known as the Galway International Oyster Festival.

The Europeans call it oyster opening. Americans call it shucking. Either way, winning in Galway is like snagging gold at the Olympics, and these participants, from 14 countries, are ready for battle.

The American competitor, William "Chopper" Young, knows a lot about knives. And oysters. A shell fisherman in Wellfleet, Mass., home to the famed Wellfleet oyster, Young is a two-time American champ who's returning to defend his 2008 Galway title, where he was the first American to win in 32 years.

There are several ways to open an oyster, and in shucking parlance Young is a "hacker," meaning he opens the shell from the side. His knife of preference is a modified Japanese blade inserted in a Dexter Russell handle. Last year, Young discovered that European Flats -- with their layered feathery edges -- cracked with his method. With less than 24 hours until the competition, Young borrowed a more rigid knife and became a "stabber," one who enters the oyster at the hinge. He won anyway.

"You have to be one with the oyster," Young said. "It's you and 30 oysters. It's the luck of the draw. They say they pick the best ones for the contest but you can never tell. One can crumble. It's oyster shucking."

The rules of competitive shucking leave little room for error. Each competitor is given 30 oysters (24 in the U.S. nationals) and has several minutes to arrange them on a tray and examine them for flaws. (A defective oyster can, with the judges' approval, be traded for a new one.) Each competitor has his own timekeeper. When you finish shucking, you raise your arms and ring a bell.

Speed isn't the only asset needed to win. Results are determined by time and presentation, and the best competitors strategize to balance speed with perfectionism. Penalties include four seconds added for each of the following no-no's: oysters with grit or damage to the shell; cut, sliced or wounded muscles; and oysters not severed from their shells or not presented upright. The worst penalty, for unopened or missing oysters, or a spot of blood, adds a steep 30 seconds to the score.

Most of these men -- they're all men this year, though Deborah Pratt of Virginia won the American nationals three times and took second place in Galway in 1997 -- are employed in the food industry as chefs, bartenders, sommeliers, restaurateurs, fishermen and oyster farmers.

To qualify, each has competed in local and regional competitions in his home country and subsequently won a national title. Some competitions, those hosted by commercial venues, offer substantial prize money -- up to $2,000 for the top spot. Other events, like here where the prizewinner takes home a Waterford crystal trophy and a few hundred euros, are all about the glory.

Tools of the trade

Back out on the flats of Galway Bay, talk quickly turns to the finer points of technique. That's when the knives appear. Anti Lepik, from Estonia, wears a thick cloth glove on his left hand, with the tip of the index finger cut off. He shows two knives with handles wrapped in putty-colored tape with curved blades that mimic an oyster's edge. One of the knives has a second, narrower blade at the opposite end, used to sever the adductor muscle from the shell without damaging the meat.

Heini Petersen of Norway, ranked first in the world and attending his fourth consecutive Galway competition, has three of these dual blade knives. Wearing a black cloth glove with leather reinforcements on the index and middle finger tips, he demonstrates his technique, deftly wielding his knife to pop open the succulent bivalve.

"What you're looking for is a shell without too many little holes," Petersen said. "A shell like that will crush when you open it."

The competition involves a weekend of festivities, which proceed like this: Friday night Mardi Gras party with live bands, sumptuous buffet for 500 and dancing on chairs. On Saturday, the shuckers join a parade that weaves its way through the cobblestone streets of the medieval city, carrying their nations' flags behind marching bands; pink-cheeked, pompom-shaking young colleens; antique cars; and anyone who feels like joining the procession to the next event, an all-afternoon party featuring oysters, Guinness, live music, Irish step dancing and the oyster-opening competition. Saturday night is a black-tie ball, with more dancing on chairs. And, in case you haven't had enough fun -- or oysters and beer -- there's a farewell party on Sunday.

On your mark . . .

On the day of the competition, the shuckers warm up by gathering round a table in a makeshift work area behind a curtain in the ballroom at the Radisson Blu Hotel, opening oysters for the revelers dancing to jazzy Frank Sinatra tunes. The cavernous ballroom, decorated with strings of tiny white lights, gossamer fabric and pink and white balloons, hosts 1,600 Guinness-quaffing guests who truly, madly love their oysters.

Eamon Clark, representing Canada, works with a knife hand-crafted in Alberta. The smooth, reddish wood handle is less than 3 inches long and the blade, about the same length, tapers to a sharp point. There's a two-year wait for a knife like this, and it will cost anywhere from $900 to $4,500.

As in many competitive situations, the mental preparation is as important as the physical.

"I visualize a perfect tray of oysters -- that's my little trick," said Michael Moran, 2006 winner and Galway's hometown favorite whose father won the event twice in the 1970s.

When it's time to compete, the band retreats and tables are whisked onto the stage. The shuckers are summoned in three heats and assigned noms de knives called out by the crowd. The fake names ensure anonymity in the judging process while creating a surreal atmosphere worthy of Fellini as the play-by-play announcements boom throughout the room.

"Three for James Bond! Seven for Obama! Thirteen for Tiger Woods!"

Young's name this year is Beckham, and the crowd chants as the shells go flying. After he raises his arms and rings the bell, he tosses an empty shell down to his girlfriend, Allison Paine, who confides they have a collection inscribed with the name of each competition.

It takes more than an hour for the trays to be evaluated and the results tabulated. Tom Grealy, the official "scrutineer," makes sure all the adjustments and calculations are correct, down to the decimal.

The results are announced in reverse order. At the end, the U.S. and Belgium competitors stand side by side. The room holds its collective breath. The 2009 winner is Xavier Caille, a Frenchman representing Belgium, with Young coming in one second later. Moran places third. A Champagne bottle is shaken and popped. The band strikes up a familiar tune, and the party resumes full tilt.

"Sweet Caroline / Good times never seemed so good."

food@latimes.com

Your Guide: Pub crawl, Race for the Arts and more

Published: Friday, Aug. 27, 2010 - 12:00 am | Page 5TICKET

Not that you ever really need an excuse for a pub crawl, but we have a good one anyway on Saturday, when a combo crawl/miniature golf tournament will roam through midtown. It's the Albie Puttin' Pub Crawl, a nine-pub, nine-hole tourney to benefit Albie Aware, a nonprofit that raises money to help area victims of breast cancer and to get people to think about cancer prevention, detection and treatment. De Vere's Irish Pub is where people can register and pick up packets, but this is a shotgun start. If you're a pubgoer but not a golfer, that means you can tee off at any of the nine sites (insert your personal definition of "teeing off" on a pub crawl here). Each participating pub and bar will have a mini-golf hole set up. Besides de Vere's on L Street, the course includes Capitol Garage, Badlands, Mulvaney's, the Torch Club, Streets of London, Bistro 33, L Wine Lounge and Zócalo. Golfers, to use the term loosely, who finish the course are eligible for a range of prizes, from the jackpot two-night stay in Las Vegas to awards for best and worst golf outfits, which will explain at least some of the clothes you might see in midtown Saturday. The event runs noon-5 p.m. Preregistration is $20, walk-ins cost $25, and more info is available at de Vere's, at www.albieaware.org or (916) 927-1592.

Read more: http://www.sacbee.com/2010/08/27/2983162/your-sacramento-guide-pub-crawl.html#ixzz0xrYxsAMN

Zorro might have been Irish???

"William Lamport (1615–1659) was an Irish-born Catholic adventurer who according to at least one historian gained a nickname of El Zorro, the Fox, due to his exploits in Mexico. The attribution of the nickname, however, is disputed.
Birth and education

William Lamport was born in 1615 in Wexford, Ireland to a family of Catholic seafarers. He received Catholic education from Jesuits in Dublin and London. By the time he was twenty-one he spoke no fewer than fourteen languages.

In 1627 Lamport was arrested in London for sedition for distributing Catholic pamphlets. He escaped, left Britain for Spain and became a pirate for the next two years. He also fought for the French at the Siege of La Rochelle against the Huguenots.

In 1633 he joined one the three Spanish-sponsored Irish regiments and took part of the combat against Swedish forces in the Spanish Netherlands. His accord in the Battle of Nordlingen in 1634 attracted interest of Duke of Olivares, chief minister to the Philip IV of Spain, who eventually helped him to enter the service of the King. By that time he had hispanised his name to Guillén Lombardo.

Exile

Exiled from the royal court, allegedly because of a scandalous love affair with a noblewoman, Lamport was sent to Mexico, to spy for the Count-Duke of Olivares. Here he began to sympathize with local Indians slaves and studied native medicine. Inquisition documents merit him with bravery, a love affair with one Spanish noblewoman and the support, if not the initiation of, a burgeoning independence movement.


Arrest by the Spanish Inquisition and execution

In 1642, when he was about to be engaged to the noblewoman Antonia Turcious, the Spanish Inquisition arrested him and accused him of plotting a war of independence against Spain. He was sentenced to ten years in jail. He escaped in 1650 and survived just two days as a fugitive. He sneaked out at night and plastered anti-Inquisition pamphlets on the walls of Mexico City. In 1659 the Spanish Inquisition condemned him to death as a heretic and sentenced him to be burned at the stake. Legend holds that he struggled out of his ropes before he would burn to death and strangled himself by his iron collar.
[edit] The Real-life Zorro

In the late twentieth century it was suggested by an Italian historian that Lamport was the inspiration for Johnston McCulley's fictional hero "Zorro". The treatment of this claim in the popular press led to Lamport being labelled in the popular imagination as "The Irish Zorro". Such claims, along with many others such as the idea that he was either a gigolo, a famous swordsman, the secret lover of the viceroy's wife, or the subject of a painting by Rubens are disputed by Irish historians. Apart from his amazingly adventurous life, his only undisputed claim to fame probably lies in the fact that he was the author of the first declaration of independence in the Indies, a document that promised land reform, equality of opportunity, racial equality and a democratically elected monarch over a century before the French Revolution."

Wikipedia

How Scotch Whisky is Made...

 

How Whisky is made

"Scotch Malt Whisky is made in pot stills from just water, barley and yeast. It is a complicated procedure but basically the traditional method is as follows.

 

 

 

Barley is steeped in water for two or three days, which causes it to start germinating when it is then spread on a maltings floor. Heat is given off and the barley is regularly turned with wooden paddles called shiels to enable even development. Starch in the barley grains turns to sugar over about 12 days, at which time germination is stopped by drying in a kiln. Usually part at least of the drying is by peat-fuelled fires, the smoke from which imparts smoky, peaty aroma and flavour to the malt and the final whisky. This is called peat reek and can be light or very heavy according to the chosen style. However, one distillery, Glengoyne, closes off the kiln-smoke from the malt so that no smokiness goes into the whisky. The dried malt is ground into grist and mashed (mixed) together with hot water to make a sugar-rich liquid called wort. It is drawn off and the solids left behind are collected for use as cattle feed. (Quite a few distillery herds have won Supreme Championships at Smithfield over the years.) The wort has yeast added to it, which then ferments over two days into a weak ale called wash. Most pot-still whisky is distilled twice so stills tend to be grouped in pairs comprising a wash still and a spirit still. There are a few distilleries where a third still is used either to allow more complicated production methods (e.g. Springbank) or for triple distillation (e.g. Auchentoshan). With double-distillation, the wash is loaded into the wash still which is heated (sometimes with a naked coal or gas flame, usually these days with internal steam pipes) to slow boiling. Alcohol vapours boil off, pass over the still’s swan-neck and condense (rarely now in a ‘worm’ immersed in cold water, usually in a modern condenser) to a liquid, called low wines. The low wines are then loaded into the spirit still and distilled a second time.

As the distillate begins to run off, the early part is unwholesome and steered to a side tank by the stillman watching the liquid pass through the spirit safe. At the right moment, he diverts the flow and collects the next part of the run in the main container which is called the spirit receiver. The stillman must continue to watch because while the liquid runs off the still, its alcoholic strength gradually drops. When a fixed strength is reached the flow is once again turned away to the side tank until it peters out, almost as water. The ‘middle cut’ – the ‘heart’ of the run that was collected in the spirit receiver – is the clean, wholesome distillate wh ich goes on to become whisky. Nothing is wasted. The foreshots and feints that were collected separately are added to the next batch of low wines and distilled with them. Scotch Grain Whisky is made in continuous stills from assorted unmalted cereals and a proportion of malted barley. The unmalted grains are cooked so that the starch cells burst open. When they are mixed with the malted barley to make a mash, the starch turns to sugar and a wort is created as with malt whisky production. The fermented wash is fed in a constant flow to a patent still which completes both the evaporation and condensation processes within its analyser and rectifier columns. As long as wash is fed in, spirit comes out at the other end. The grain spirit is produced at much higher strength, making it smooth in texture but faint in both flavour and aroma. Both malt and grain whisky must age in oak casks for a legal minimum of three years, but in fact most ages for much longer. The majority of single malts mature for between eight and 16 years, and 12 years is widely used as the bottling age for both malts and good de luxe blends. If an age is declared on a label it refers to the youngest whisky blended or vatted in the bottle. During ageing, whisky loses its youthful fieriness and takes on flavours and aromas from the cask. Vanilla and a pleasant oakiness are two such, and, if the cask has previously held sherry, sweetness, toffee and sherry flavours may also come through. With a range of characteristics on call, the best whiskies achieve a balance of mellowness, complexity and completeness that is most attractive. Blended Scotch assembles the best degrees of whisky’s richness, flavour, aroma, texture, mellowness and strength without the more daunting extremes of pungency, concentration, high strength, ultra-smokiness or blandness. Blended Scotch has nothing in common with, say, blended wine or blended whiskey from other countries where something acceptable is made out of constituents that are unbalanced or flawed. Most of the whiskies used in blended Scotch are available as self whiskies in their own right. Good blends have from 45% to 60% malt content and the skills needed to assemble perhaps 45 different whiskies to make a single consistent blend are considerable." "Original article from www.uisge.com

Don't like to read...Watch this (not responsible for the music!):

John Powers, An Over looked Irish Whiskey In the United States.

"The Power's John Lane Distillery in 1886 - Click for larger size imageThe John’s Lane Distillery, founded in the year 1791 by James Power, an inn keeper from Dublin, was quite possibly the most beautiful, efficient and perfect distillery visited by Alfred Barnard in 1886 –maybe explaining why he devoted a full 6 pages in his book to it, more than for any other distillery in Ireland.  This great power house of Irish distiling started life on a very small scale - it was a tiny distillery producing 6,000 gallons, situated behind James Powers’ public house, from where mail coaches heading west out of Dublin would begin their journey. It did not stay small for long, and expanded rapidly after the 1823 Excise Act, which changed the limitations and taxations previously imposed on distillers.  James Power’s son, John, acquired a 500-gallon still and by 1833 they were producing 300,000 gallons a year.  They did extensive rebuilding and expanded hugely in 1871 and when Alfred Barnard made his famous visit, output was at an impressive 900,000 gallons per year, slightly less than what the Jameson Distillery was producing.  

Engine Room No.5 with its double faced clock - Click for larger size imageThe building was an ultra modern efficient complex, covering six-and-a-quarter acres of ground and offices, all the way from Thomas Street to the Quays by the river Liffey.   There were open staircases throughout the five grain floors. These floors were beautifully clean and well ventilated and contained most of the time over 3,000 tonnes of grain. The kilns were 57 feet by 30 feet, with open groined roofs, lined with wood and stained oak, making them look like small English parish churches.  The Mill room produced 1,500 barrels every twenty-four hours. The Still House was a noble looking building, containing five pot stills in 1886 and six by the turn of the century, the largest being the two Wash Stills, each holding 25,000 gallons.  Powers produced triple distilled pot still whiskey, made from a mixture of malted and unmalted barley, with a small proportion of wheat or oats added, as was the custom in Ireland at the time.  This new spirit would be put into casks and into any of the 17 warehouses which could hold up to 12,000 casks at any one time.  The Distillery also had splendid outlying bonded warehouses under Westland Row Railway Station and under the South City Markets, which brought the total warehousing capacity to 40,000 casks.  Barnard was particularly impressed by the warehouses underneath the new City Markets, with brick arches, supported on rolled iron beams and perfectly ventilated by large windows, the temperature being carefully monitored in both summer and winter. 

The Powers were noted breeders of shire horses and in the premises in Thomas Street there were large stables and even a “horse hospital” for any horses who fell ill. There were also engineering shops, sawmills, carpenters, coppersmiths and fitters and the distillery employed 275 men.  Barnard noted interestingly that the water used in the Distillery was principally from the river Vartry and that some of the old fashioned customers sent two empty casks with their order – one to be filled with Powers’ whiskey, the other to be filled with water from the Vartry, in order to reduce their whiskey with same water as had been used in the making of the spirit.

The Distillery had its own fire department, manned day and night by a team of 8 men and the alarms were connected through the exchange to the city Fire Brigade.  In case of fire, the water supply was destined to come from the Vartry, the Grand Canal and the Royal Canal and the distillery had its own stationary horizontal double-acting fire engine, capable of throwing 800 gallons of water per minute through eight lines of hose to a height of 150 feet.

The beam engine inside Engine Room No.5 - Click for larger size imageIn 1866, John Power & Son began bottling their own whiskey, which was unheard of before in Ireland, as it was usually sold in the cask.  The gold label was entrusted on the bottle and it was from this that the whiskey got its name “Powers Gold Label”.  As the distillery and the brand grew, so did the stature of the family - John Power first was made High Sheriff of Dublin, then knighted in 1841 - after which the firm traded as Sir John Powers & Son - and it was he who laid the foundation stone to the O’Connell Monument in Dublin in 1854.  The last member of the family to serve on the Board was Sir Thomas Talbot Power who died in 1936.  The Powers distillery was a founding member of the Irish Distillers Group and ownership of the company remained in the family until 1966.  John's Lane Distillery installed a column still in 1961, which they used primarily for the production of gin and vodka, but which was also used to experiment with producing grain whiskey for blending.  They were instrumental in persuading the Irish Distillers Group to move from focusing on pot still whiskeys to blended whiskeys. The distillery finally closed its doors in 1974 when the Irish Distillers Group decided to move all its production, including that of Powers Whiskey, to the Midleton Distillery, where Powers whiskey is still distilled today.  Interestingly, the stillhouse in the new distillery in Midleton with its interconnecting pot stills and column stills was modelled mainly on that of John's Lane.

So what has become of the distillery itself? Most of it, unfortunately has been demolished, some of it even before the closure and the move to Midleton. In 1980 Ireland’s National College of Art and Design bought most of the site and the Counting House, a magnificent building on Thomas Street which was used as offices, Distiller's residence, still stands today. The Great Still House with its five pot stills that gleamed “like burnished gold” has unfortunately vanished, but three pot stills were spared and can still be seen today, outdoors, green with time and neglect. Part of the original Kiln building is still distinguishable from its circular shape and houses the College’s library upstairs.  Two of the original five Engine Houses have survived, the most notable being Engine House No.5 with its beam engine of 250 horse power manufactured by Turnbull, Grant and Jack of Glasgow in 1886.  The double faced clock, admired by Barnard, set in the wall of the Engine House can still be seen today.  Only the smaller of the original two chimney stacks has survived (95ft), the taller stack which stood at 120ft having been demolished for safety and insurance reasons, shortly after the College acquired the site.

Fortunately, the vestiges of the John’s Lane Powers Distillery today are now protected structures, so they are likely to remain as a testament to this once great distillery.  The College of Art and Design is not open to visitors as such, however, they are most amiable, and will accommodate anyone who wants to come in to see what is left of the distillery.  If you are a big Powers whiskey fan, you may want to take this short pilgrimage to the spiritual home of your favourite whiskey, especially if you are visiting The Old Jameson Distillery, as the two are only about a 30 minute walk from each other.  Call into reception at the college from the Thomas Street entrance, and explain that you would like to see the pot stills and old distillery.  The Engine Room is not open for viewing, but you can wander at your ease in the grounds of the College where you can admire the stills, chimney stack and remaining architecture."
Irelandwhiskeytrail.com
John’s Lane Distillery – Thomas Street, Dublin 8

Tel. +353 01 6364291 (National College of Art and Design reception)gn reception)

Booze Is For Breakfast...I Have Video Proof!

A few Basic Facts. Whisky...or whiskey?

"Here goes a few basic facts taken from a web site To get us started.  For more information please go to. http://lifestyle.iloveindia.com/lounge/facts-about-whisky-3190.html There are two legitimate spellings of whisky. One is ‘whisky’ - as spelled by Scotts and Canadians and the second is ‘whiskey’ - as spelled by the Irish and Americans.

There is a dispute between the Irish and the Scotts, as to who were the first to make whisky.

Scotch and Irish whisky are made the same way, with the exception of malting and distillation process.

There are five basic classifications of whisky - Irish Whisky, Scotch Whisky, Bourbon, Canadian Whisky and American Whisky.

The dark color of whiskey comes from the wooden barrels in which it is aged. The wood expands and contracts with the change in temperature, making the movie in and out of the wood. The compounds from wood give whisky its dark color.

The barrels made from American White Oak have been claimed to produce the tastiest whisky.

Tennessee whiskey gets its distinct flavor and aroma characteristics from a unique process called "mellowing".

There are more than 5000 types of Single Malt Whisky.

Whisky can be called Whisky only when it matured for a minimum of 3 years in oak casks.

Single Malt Whisky comes from a single distillery and a single grain. However, it is possible that it underwent maturing in multiple casks.

Blended Whisky is called Blended Whisky because of the mixture of Grain Whisky and multiple Single Malt Whiskies.

Around 90 percent of Single Malt Whisky comes from Scotland.

A whisky stops maturing after it is bottled.

A closed bottle of whisky can be kept for more than 100 years and it will still be good to drink. After opening, a half-full bottle of whisky will remain good for five years.

Pure malt whisky is produced only from malted barley."